RALEIGH, N.C. (WNCN) — As North Carolinians start their summer voyages to beaches, lakes, rivers and pools this holiday weekend, officials at the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services are offering suggestions to maximize the health benefits of water-based activities while minimizing the risk of illness, injury and death.

According to the CDC, drowning is a leading preventable cause of death for children. While it can happen to anyone, young children are at the highest risk. To help prevent drowning, the CDC recommends monitoring all children around pools or other bodies of water and designating one responsible adult for every five children in the water.

“Drowning deaths are tragic and preventable,” said Dr. Susan Kansagra, Senior Deputy Director, NC Division of Public Health. “Now is the time to take simple steps to prevent drownings and stay safe and healthy wherever you and your family or friends gather for water recreation activities.”

To keep pools secure, close and lock or latch gates or doors every time they are used, never prop a gate or door open and remove or lock ladders when aboveground pools are not in use.

Pool chemicals, like chlorine, are needed to protect swimmers’ health. However, mishandling pool chemicals can cause serious, preventable injuries.

Keep chemicals secure and away from children and pets, wear safety equipment when handling and never mix different pool chemicals together. Here’s more about pool safety.

Swimming pools, spas, lakes, rivers and oceans are all potential sources of water recreation illness if the water is contaminated with germs.

Recreational water illnesses typically affect a person’s stomach and intestines, skin or respiratory system. The most common symptoms are diarrhea, skin rashes, ear pain, cough or congestion and eye pain.

Review the North Carolina State Department of Environmental Quality’s coastal swimming advisory map before you head to the beach or check with the local health department before swimming in freshwater.

Algal blooms can also cause illness, although there are no current documented reports in North Carolina. Harmful algal blooms are overgrowths of algae in water. Some produce dangerous toxins in fresh or marine water and it is best to avoid water suspected of having an algal bloom.

Here are a few practical precautions:

  • Keep children and pets away from waters that appear discolored or scummy.
  • Do not handle or touch large accumulations of algae, also called “scums” or “mats.” 
  • Do not water ski or jet ski over algal mats. 
  • Do not use scummy water for cleaning or irrigation. 
  • If you accidentally come into contact with an algal bloom, wash thoroughly.

A more serious water illness comes from primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, also called amoebic meningitis, a very rare but serious disease that leads to inflammation of the brain, which can lead to death. It’s caused by the Naegleria fowleri amoeba, a single-cell organism, that often grows in warm, untreated, stagnant water such as lakes, rivers or poorly maintained swimming pools.

PAM infection happens if water containing the Naegleria fowleri amoeba travels up the nose, through activities such as jumping, diving or falling into the water. The amoeba can then make its way to the brain, causing inflammation and destroying brain tissue. You cannot get PAM from swallowing infected water.

Recommended precautions include:

  • Limit the amount of water going up your nose. Hold your nose shut, use nose clips or keep your head above water when taking part in warm freshwater-related activities. 
  • Avoid water-related activities in warm freshwater during periods of high water temperature and low water levels. 
  • Avoid digging in or stirring up the sediment while taking part in water-related activities in shallow, warm freshwater areas.

Visit the CDC website for more information and tips on staying safe in the water this summer.